Database management is a method of managing information that supports a company’s business operations. It involves storing and distributing data it to users and applications and editing it as required as well as monitoring changes in data and stopping data corruption due unexpected failure. It is a part of the informational infrastructure of a business that supports decision making and corporate growth as well as compliance with laws like the GDPR and California Consumer Privacy Act.
In the 1960s, Charles Bachman and IBM among others developed the first database systems. They developed into information management systems (IMS) which allowed large amounts of data to be stored and retrieved for a variety of purposes. From calculating inventory to aiding complicated financial accounting functions, and human resource functions.
A database is tables that arrange data according to some schema, such as one-to many relationships. It makes use of primary keys to identify records and permits cross-references among tables. Each table has a set of fields, called attributes, that provide information about the entities that comprise the data. The most popular type of database currently is a relational model created by E. F. “Ted” Codd at IBM in the 1970s. This model is based on normalizing data to make it easier to use. It also makes it easier to update data by avoiding the need to update different sections of the database.
Most DBMSs support multiple database types by providing different levels of external and internal organization. The internal level concerns cost, scalability, and other operational issues like the physical layout of the database. The external level is the representation of the database in user interfaces and applications. It can include a combination of different external views (based on the different data models) and may also include virtual tables which are generated from generic data in order to improve performance.